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Dear Hiroshi,

In answer to your questions about library procedures:

1. In our school which is Kindergarten-5th grade, ages 5-10, students come to 
the library once a week for a 30 min. class time. Some schools in the United 
States have 45 min. and some an hour class time. Due to our size (560 
students) and limited amount of extra time, our students come for 30 min. 
classes. Our students also go to physical education four times a week, choir 
(music) twice a week, computer lab twice a week, and have a daily recess time.
 All of these are for 30 min. periods of time. When students begin middle 
school, grades 6-8, they no longer have a single classroom teacher and go to 
extra scheduled classes during the week, but then go to hourly classes with 
different teachers who teach only one subject like English, history, math, 
science, etc. At these ages it is the English teacher who brings the students 
to the library occasionally for directed library classes, to check out 
assigned books to read for book reports, etc. Other teachers bring classes to 
the library when the teacher wishes to have the students to be doing a 
research project and they use the library for gathering information for their 

1  私たちの学校では、幼稚園から5学年までの、年齢的には5歳から10歳までは、週に1

2. When the students come to the library where I teach, all get to choose a 
book on their own. However, there are some guide lines. For kindergarten I 
select about 30 books which would be age appropriate for them and have 
students to select one book from the 30 I've laid out on the table. I first 
have a story time in which I teach certain skills like what is an author, a 
title, an illustrator, a publisher, a title page, a call number, etc. I also 
go over topics like book care, library behavior, manners, etc. Other times I 
introduce to special authors, books which have won special awards like the 
Caldecott, etc. Then I do a quick book review of all 30 books I've placed on 
the table and then students come in small groups to select a book and take 
back to their classroom to read and share with their classmates until their 
library time the next week.

2 私が教えている図書館へ生徒がくるときは、彼ら自身で本を選びます。しかし一定のガイド

First & second grades select books on their own, but are kept in the easy 
section of the library where books are on their age level. These are easy to 
read books with many pictures.


Third-fifth grades can select a book from anywheres in our library; easy, 
fiction, biography, or nonfiction sections. The rule is they must choose a 
book they can read. Sometimes teachers request students read a book from a 
particular section or about a certain topic like insects, or biography.

At our school we also require fourth graders to read a book from one of the 
nonfiction sections once a month. This is to get them acquainted with each of 
the ten sections of the Dewey Decimal System. This gives them a well-rounded 
approach to reading of different subject materials. One month it may be 
history, the next month science, next month poetry and literature, next month 
technology, next month fine arts, etc. The other three times they come they 
may choose a book of their choice from anywhere in the library.

せ、読むように指導しています。これは子どもたちを、DEWEY DECIMAL SYSTEMの10

3. Each child comes to the library once a week and selects a book of their 
choosing as long as it is one they can read and meets either the teacher or my 
specifications depending on the subject we are covering. I don't require book 
reports, but their classroom teachers sometimes do. It depends on what the 
lesson for them is.

3 それぞれの子どもは、週に一度、図書館へ来て、彼らが読める本であり、先生の指導に添

4. Each student is assessed by his/her classroom teacher through various 
testing and one-on-one work together. If a child needs to be steered to a 
certain level of reading material, the teacher will tell me and the child. In 
some schools they are using a new program called accelerated reader to entice 
students to read more by giving rewards for their accomplishments when they 
pass tests on the books they've read. Sometimes this is good and sometimes 

4 それぞれの生徒は、いろいろなテストや、個人面談で能力を評価されます。ある特定の読

The more a child reads, especially if he/she is reading at home with parents 
assistance, the better a child's vocabulary and reading ability becomes.  
Reading is the most important skill of all. It is the skill used in every 
subject area (including math) and every aspect of life. This is the main 
skill we focus on in elementary school. The other two major skills are 
writing and mathematics. Then comes technology, science, and 


5. I am the only degreed librarian in our school. Most schools have only 
one, but that depends on their size. If a school has over 1000 students, like 
in secondary schools, they may have two. I do have a library aide who assists 
me in running the library. She takes care of the circulation desk while I 
teach classes, does some clerical work, shelves books, repairs books, etc.  
The library media specialist (librarian) must have a teaching degree 
(bachelor's of education)and a master's degree in library media. The aide only 
has to have a high school education. I am like a half time teacher and half 
time administrator.

5 私だけが、資格をもった司書です。ほとんどの学校では、ひとりだけしかいませんが、それ

I might add that in the upper grades I spend more time teaching library skills 
and less time with storytime with them. However, I do try to include 
literature of various forms in the majority of my lessons for our children 
love to hear stories, both fiction and nonfiction. Books are very important 
to our schools in the United States.


I hope I have answered your questions to your satisfaction. If you have more, 
please feel free to contact me. I appreciate getting to share this 
information with you.



I will try to better explain some of the information you requested.


1. What I meant by directed library classes is where the classroom teacher 
sets a time with the library media specialist for his/her class to come to the 
library to either look for books for book reports, to look for information on 
specific research projects or reports, or to have the librarian explain and/or 
demonstrate how to efficiently use library resources. This is done mainly in 
the upper grades 3-12 and more so in grades 6-12. Grades 6-12 do not have 
regularly scheduled library times, but teachers bring their classes to the 
library as needed. They first schedule a time with the librarian, so there 
won't be too many classes in the library at once. The classroom teacher 
remains there with his/her class with the librarian assiting the classroom 
teacher and students in whatever they need at that time; like locating 
information, finding particular books, using computers, etc.

1、「directed class」というのは、クラスの教師が、図書専門教師とともに、図書館へやって

The library media specialist's job involves many aspects. He/she is 
responsible for selecting print and nonprint materials for the library, 
ordering these materials, processing and cataloging them, and staying within a 
fixed yearly budget. We get $10 per child a year in our budget to spend on 
library materials. These materials are not all books and not just for the 
students. Many of the materials we purchase are for the classroom teacher to 
use in his/her instructional needs for subjects being taught in their 
The librarian for grades K-5 teaches each classes both regularly scheduled 
ones (like once a week for a 30 min. class time) and classes which the 
classroom teacher requests getting assistance from the librarian when the 
class is doing a research project. Sometimes teachers just send small groups 
of students to the library at a time when he/she does not have a regularly 
scheduled time and has time to assist the small group which has been planned 
ahead of time between the librarian and the classroom teacher.


The librarian is also responsible for keeping the school informed of many 
current events happening in the educational field in our area. We have some 
district, county, and state level groups that contact the librarian who passes 
the information about workshops, meetings, etc. on to the staff.


There are many other jobs involved, but this gives you an idea of some of the 
main areas done by the librarian.


2.Call number This is the letters and numbers using the Dewey Decimal System 
which are given to each book to identify where in the library that book or 
other material should be located. There are ten main divisions in the Dewey 
Deciaml System depending on the subject of the material and then the major 
subjects are divided even more according to specific subjects. For example 
the 600's are applied technology. 636 is the number given to domestic pets.  
636.7 is the number for dogs as pets. Then 636.734 is the number for a 
particular breed of dog. After the Dewey Decimal Number is determined then 
the first three letters of the author's last name is put below the number.  
Books are shelved in the nonfiction (numbered areas) by numerical value first, 
then by the author's last name, and then by the title name if the author has 
written more than one title of the same subject.

2、「コールナンバー」について。これはDEWEY 分類法による、これによって本を分類し、図
書室のどこにどのような本があるかがわかります。DEWEY 分類法によれば、10の分野に

We also have fiction books put in two separate sections: easy and fiction.  
Easy are for young children. These are very easy to read books or books with 
lots of pictures. Fiction books are mainly chapter books for older students 
to read. These are placed by E for easy or Fic for fiction on the first line 
and then the first three letters of the authors last name on the second line.  
That makes up the call number.


Another section in the libray is the biography. The call number for this is 
different from all other sections. Books are placed on the shelf according to 
whom the book has been written about. For example, a biography about George 
W. Bush would be placed as B for biography or number 92 (libraries can use 
either the number 92 or the alphabetical letter B to designate that section. 
At our school we use the number 92) and below that will be the first three 
letters of the last name of the person the book is about. In this case it 
would be Bus. Then if several books have been written about that person, the 
books are put in order next by who the author of the book was, then by titles 
if one person wrote more than one biography about a person.


We also have a reference section in our library which have books that can only 
be used while in the library, but not checked out by students. Teachers can 
check them out for one day only. These are books like almanacs, 
encyclopedias, unabridged dictionaries, etc. These books are very expensive, 
or come in sets, or have only statistical information which one would use for 
reference material. These books are ones that are not usually read cover to 


In our library we have over 12,000 books total which students can check out 
plus our refernce books and other materials and equipment. We add to this 
collection each year. We also weed outdated materials or ones that are simply 
worn out. Sometimes we replace discarded books if they are very important 

3. Caldecott award: The American Library Association has been selecting one 
children's book each year for over 80 years now to receive the outstanding 
picture book award. The illustrator receives this award. Most of these have 
been either easy books or fairy tale books (398.2) and are for younger 
children. The award is given in honor of Randolph Caldecott who in the late 
1800's began putting illustrations in published children's books in England.
I always let the children know which book is selected each year and share that 
book with them. We pay particular attention to the pictures.

Another award that is given each year by the American Library Associaton is 
the Newberry Award which is given to the author with the best children's book 
printed the year before. A committee of 15 children's librarians from the 
American Libray Association select that winner in January of the next year.  
It is usually given to a fiction book, but there have been biographies and 
nonfiction titles chosen in the past. John Newberry was the first person to 
start publishing children's books in the middle 1700's in England. He owned a 
bookstore and a publishing company and thought books should be for children 
too. I usually do a book talk on this as I don't have time to read the 
complete book to the students.

4. Storytime:
For kindergarten-second grades yes, I usually read one or two stories to them 
each class time. I use the books I'm going to read to also teach information 
like author, title, call number on the book spine, title page of books, parts 
of a book, book care, etc. I have one topic I cover each time and we add 
information about books to that week by week. Books I read are ones that are 
by a particular author I'm emphasizing, an award winner, a particular subject 
we're covering, or just a fun book that is new that I want to share with them.

We are given guidelines to go by the Arkansas State Department of Education as 
to what library skills should be taught to each grade level. It is up to the 
individual librarians as to what stories he/she chooses to read and how he/she 
chooses to teach the objectives required for each grade level.

For grades 3-5 I do more instructional topics with them. I read a story to 
them occasionally and sometimes even read a novel which may take five to six 
class times to get read. I do book talks on books which have something in 
common like the Newberry award, another contest we are in called the Charlie 
May Simon nominees, historical fiction, poetry selections, biographies, etc.
We learn a lot of library skills too like how to write a book, how to locate a 
book using the call number and the automated card catalog, storytelling, 
locating information using reference books, etc.

5. Easy Section: When Melvil Dewey came up with the Dewey Decimal System, all 
books were given a number, but as time went by it was found some sections had 
far far more books than others. To make it easier, children's picture books 
were placed in a separate section called the Easy section. This section is 
for everybody, but especially younger ones. Books here are about 30 pages in 
length with lots of pictures. Some are very easy to read for beginning 
readers and others are not so easy, but have a short story with lots of 
pictures. Even if the child can't read it, he/she can still enjoy the book.  
A picture is sometimes worth a 1000 words.

6. Dewey Decimal System: Yes, it is a standard we use in public schools and 
public libraries for classifying books and other materials. Colleges use a 
much more broader system know as the Library of Congress method.

7.Accelerated Reader: This is a new program which has only been around for 
about 6-7 years now. This is a method of enticing students to read more by 
getting credit if they can pass a special test designed for a book. Only a 
small percentage of books presently have tests made for them and automated on 
discs. This is a very expensive program costing about $10,000 to set up in a 
school. Then each year more discs are purchased with book tests on them.  
There is even space for teachers or librarians to make up their own tests over 
a book. We don't have this program at our school as we feel students should 
read because they won't to read, not for a reward. Also, many schools which 
have started this program, are finding students won't read a book unless it is 
on the accelerated reading list which has a test to take after reading the 
book, so they can get rewards. Rewards can be anything from candy, toys, 
stickers, etc. Many good books go untouched unless teachers or librarians 
have the time to make out a test for that book and put it on the automated 
program. With 12,000 books in our library and only about 1000 on the 
accelerated reader program, I would not have time to do this.
 8. One to 0ne work means a teacher working directly with a student. usually 
teachers give the whole class an assignment to do like math problems then 
he/she works one-on-one with a student while rest of the class is doing their 
math problems. She works with one by one as time provides.

9. Recess is play time on the playground. They need this for recreation and 
as a break from studying.

Another class is here and I must go. Please let me know if you have any other